很多人认为尽力作业会让咱们更高兴,可是否反过来想过高兴也会进步咱们的作业效率?肖恩·阿克尔(Shawn Achor)是哈佛大学十多个出色教育奖的获得者,他在哈佛最受欢迎的课程上教育活跃心思学。他说并不一定是实际国际造就咱们,而是咱们大脑用来看国际的那个镜片造就了咱们的实际国际。一起来看看这个在TED官网上播映量过两千万的人气讲演。

中英全文(来自TED官网)

When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old, we were playing on top of a bunk bed. I was two years older than my sister at the time -- I mean, I'm two years older than her now -- but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do, and I wanted to play war. So we were up on top of our bunk beds. And on one side of the bunk bed, I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry. And on the other side were all my sister's My Little Ponies ready for a cavalry charge.

我七岁的时分我妹妹才五岁。咱们其时在一个双层床的上铺玩,那时分我比她大两岁。当然,我现在也比她大两岁。可是在其时这意味着她有必要全都听我的。我想玩战役游戏,所以咱们爬到了双层床的上铺、在床的一侧,我放上了我一切的玩具大兵和兵器,另一边则是我妹妹的小马玩偶,时间预备着进行一场马队突击。

There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon, but since my sister is not here with us today, let me tell you the true story -- which is my sister's a little on the clumsy side. Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all, Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed and landed with this crash on the floor. I nervously peered over the side of the bed to see what had befallen my fallen sister and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees on all fours on the ground.

后来咱们对那天下午发作的作业有不同的说法。可是已然我妹妹今日不在场,我就跟你们说说终究发作了什么。实际便是我妹妹有点笨手笨脚的,不知道怎样回事,我这个做哥哥的既没碰她也没推她,我妹妹艾米忽然就从上铺掉下去了,狠狠地摔到了地上。我万分严重地从床的一侧往下瞄,想知道发作了什么事,然后发现她苦楚地趴在地上,四脚着地。

I was nervous because my parents had charged me with making sure that my sister and I played as safely and as quietly as possible. And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy's arm just one week before -- heroically pushing her out of the way of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet, for which I have yet to be thanked, I was trying as hard as I could -- she didn't even see it coming -- I was trying hard to be on my best behavior.

我特别严重,因为爸爸妈妈现已叮咛过我,一定要确保妹妹和我游玩的时分注意安全,不要太嬉闹。这时分我忽然想起来一星期之前,我才不小心弄破了艾米的臂膀。我颇具英雄气概地把她,从一个设想的扑面而来的狙击手子弹中推开。到现在她都还没有谢我呢,我其时可是拼了命的。她甚至都没看到那子弹迎面扑来,我可是拼命展现了我最厉害的一面。

And I saw my sister's face, this wail of pain and suffering and surprise threatening to erupt from her mouth and wake my parents from the long winter's nap for which they had settled. So I did the only thing my frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy. And if you have children, you've seen this hundreds of times. I said, "Amy, wait. Don't cry. Did you see how you landed? No human lands on all fours like that. Amy, I think this means you're a unicorn."

然后我看到我妹妹的脸,她满脸苦楚、惊奇的表情,立刻就要哭出来了,极有或许惊醒 习气在绵长冬天午睡的爸爸妈妈。所以我做了一件,一个手忙脚乱的七岁小孩仅有能想到的事,来改动悲惨剧。假如你有孩子的话,你必定见过好几百次了。我说,“艾米,艾米,好了,别哭了,别哭了 你看到你是怎样落地的么?人类是不会那样四脚朝地落下去的 艾米,我觉得这意味着你便是传说中的独角兽。

Now, that was cheating, because there was nothing she would want more than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister, but Amy the special unicorn. Of course, this option was open to her brain at no point in the past. And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict, as her little brain attempted to devote resources to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise she just experienced, or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn. And the latter won. Instead of crying or ceasing our play, instead of waking my parents, with all the negative consequences for me, a smile spread across her face and she scrambled back up onto the bunk bed with all the grace of a baby unicorn -- with one broken leg.

很显着这是骗她的,因为我妹妹现在最不想做的便是那个受伤的五岁小妹妹艾米,她想做的是超级独角兽艾米。当然,曾经她是彻底没有做独角兽这个主意的。所以就看到我那不幸的、被我操控了的妹妹怎样纠结,她的小脑袋正在决议终究是继续回味方才阅历的那些痛苦、摧残和惊奇,仍是细心考虑她作为独角兽的新身份。后者胜出了,所以她没哭,也没有中止游戏,更没有惊醒咱们的爸爸妈妈。这些负面的影响都没有发生,她脸上划过一丝浅笑,从头爬回到双层床的上铺,带着作为一只小独角兽的荣耀,还有一条受伤的腿。

What we stumbled across at this tender age of just five and seven -- we had no idea at the time -- was was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain. We had stumbled across something called positive psychology, which is the reason I'm here today and the reason that I wake up every morning.

咱们在五岁或七岁无意间发现的道理其实是,当然其时咱们并不知情,后来一个科学革新的前锋观念。它发作在二十年后,首要研讨人脑的问题,咱们其时的发现叫做活跃心思学 。这也是我今日站在这儿的原因,一起也是我每天早晨醒来的原因。

When I started talking about this research outside of academia, with companies and schools, the first thing they said to never do is to start with a graph. The first thing I want to do is start with a graph. This graph looks boring, but it is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning. And this graph doesn't even mean anything; it's fake data. What we found is --

当我刚开端在学术圈外议论这个研讨时,在公司以及校园,他们着重的榜首件事便是,永久不要以图表开端你的说话。我在这儿想做的榜首件事恰恰便是用图表开端我的讲演。这个图表看起来很单调。可是它恰恰便是我每天坚持振奋并醒来的原因。并且这个表什么也不是,它是一个假数据。咱们从这些数据中发现——

If I got this data studying you, I would be thrilled, because there's a trend there, and that means that I can get published, which is all that really matters. There is one weird red dot above the curve, there's one weirdo in the room -- I know who you are, I saw you earlier -- that's no problem. That's no problem, as most of you know, because I can just delete that dot. I can delete that dot because that's clearly a measurement error. And we know that's a measurement error because it's messing up my data.

假如我用这些数据来研讨在座的各位,估量我会很振奋。因为很显着这儿有一个趋势,这意味着我能够将这个出书了,这才是最要害的。实际是这个曲线上方有一个乖僻的红点,便是说在座有一个乖僻的人,我知道是哪位,方才我看到你了。这个不是问题,你们都知道,这并不是问题。因为我彻底能够删去这个点,我能删掉它是因为这显着是一个丈量过错。咱们都知道它是一个丈量过错,因为它把我的数据弄乱了。

So one of the first things we teach people in economics, statistics, business and psychology courses is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos. How do we eliminate the outliers so we can find the line of best fit? Which is fantastic if I'm trying to find out how many Advil the average person should be taking -- two. But if I'm interested in your potential, or for happiness or productivity or energy or creativity, we're creating the cult of the average with science.

所以一般经济学、统计学、商务学以及心思学课程都会教咱们的一件事,是为坚持数据的有效性,咱们怎样删去乖僻的数据?咱们怎样经过删去异常值,来找出最合适的曲线呢?令人惊奇的是,当我企图研讨每个人应该服用的雅维(解热镇痛药)数量时,我发现应该是两粒。可是假如我对或许性感兴趣,假如我对你的潜力或许高兴、生产力或许精力、发明力感兴趣,咱们现在所做的便是对科学里的均匀概念的迷信。

If I asked a question like, "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?" scientists change the answer to "How fast does the average child learn how to read in that classroom?" and we tailor the class towards the average. If you fall below the average, then psychologists get thrilled, because that means you're depressed or have a disorder, or hopefully both. We're hoping for both because our business model is, if you come into a therapy session with one problem, we want to make sure you leave knowing you have ten, so you keep coming back. We'll go back into your childhood if necessary, but eventually we want to make you normal again. But normal is merely average.

假如我问一个问题,比方说“一个孩子在教室里学习阅览能有多快?”科学家们会把问题变成“孩子在教室学习阅览的均匀速度是多少?”然后咱们会把教室里的孩子都设想成均匀水平。假如你低于这个均匀线,心思学家就会感到很惊奇。因为这意味着你要么有郁闷症要么有身心妨碍,或许很或许二者兼具。咱们希望你二者兼具,因为咱们的商业形式是,假如你因为一个缺点来进行医治,咱们希望你脱离的时分知道自己其实是有10个缺点的。这样你就会一遍又一遍地来进行医治,假如必要的话咱们会追溯到你的幼年。可是最终咱们想做的是使你变得正常。可是正常这个概念只是指均匀水平。

And positive psychology posits that if we study what is merely average, we will remain merely average. Then instead of deleting those positive outliers, what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one and say, why? Why are some of you high above the curve in terms of intellectual, athletic, musical ability, creativity, energy levels, resiliency in the face of challenge, sense of humor? Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you. Because maybe we can glean information, not just how to move people up to the average, but move the entire average up in our companies and schools worldwide.

我以及活跃心思学家们假定的是,假如咱们只研讨均匀水平,咱们就会一向停留在均匀水平上,因而咱们不会删去那些活跃的异常值。我想做的是研讨这些异常值的人群,然后探求其间的原因。为什么你们中有些人远远高于这个均匀曲线?包含你的智商、运动才能、音乐才能、发明力、精力、面临应战的弹性以及幽默感?不管是哪方面,我不会删去你,而是去研讨你。因为或许咱们能够搜集信息,不只仅是把均匀值下面的人进步到均匀曲线上去,而是怎样将整个均匀曲线进步,不管是在全国际范围内的公司仍是校园都是如此。

The reason this graph is important to me is, on the news, the majority of the information is not positive. in fact it's negative. Most of it's about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters. And very quickly, my brain starts to think that's the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world. This creates "the medical school syndrome." During the first year of medical training, as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases, suddenly you realize you have all of them.

这个图表对我很重要,因为每逢我翻开新闻频道时,如同大部分的信息都不是活跃的。实际上是消沉的,大部分都是关于谋杀、糜烂、疾病、自然灾害。我当即想到这才是国际上真实的消沉和活跃所占的份额。这其实形成了一种叫做医学院综合症的东西。假如你知道读过医学院的人,你就会知道在医学院一年级的时分,当你读完一份关于一切或许发作的疾病和相关症状的列表,你立刻就会感觉如同一切这些症状和疾病自己都有。

I have a brother in-law named Bobo, which is a whole other story. Bobo married Amy the unicorn. Bobo called me on the phone -- from Yale Medical School, and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy." Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare. But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause.

我有一个妹夫叫波波,这是另一件事了。波波和我那个“独角兽艾米”妹妹成婚了,有一天他从耶鲁医学院给我打来电话。他说,“肖恩,我得麻风病了”这个病在耶鲁都是其极稀有的,可是我不知道怎样来安慰不幸的波波,因为曩昔的整整一礼拜他一向在战胜自己的更年期问题。

We're finding it's not necessarily the reality that shapes us, but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality. And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness, we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time.

所以咱们发现并不一定是实际国际造就咱们,而是咱们大脑用来看国际的那个镜片造就了咱们的实际国际。假如咱们换一副镜片,咱们不只能够改动自己的高兴程度,一起还能改动每一个教育或许商业成果。

I applied to Harvard on a dare. I didn't expect to get in, and my family had no money for college. When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they let me go. Something that wasn't even a possibility became a reality. I assumed everyone there would see it as a privilege as well, that they'd be excited to be there. Even in a classroom full of people smarter than you, I felt you'd be happy just to be in that classroom. But what I found is, while some people experience that, when I graduated after my four years and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students -- Harvard asked me to; I wasn't that guy.

当年请求哈佛的时分,我彻底是甩手一试的。我并没有希望能被选取,家里也没有钱供我去读大学。两周后我拿到了军事奖学金,哈佛选取我了。忽然,一个连“或许”都谈不上的作业变成实际了。当我到了哈佛,我认为其他人也都跟我相同把来这儿读书作为一个荣耀,他们到这儿来必定都特别振奋,即便你坐在一个满是比你聪明的人的教室里 你也会很高兴,只是只是坐在那个教室就很高兴,这是我其时的感觉。可是我发现,一起其他人也有相似领会。四年之后我从哈佛结业,然后在学生宿舍和他们住了八年,这可是哈佛约请我去的,我可不是那种八年毕不了业的人。

I was an officer to counsel students through the difficult four years. And in my research and my teaching, I found that these students, no matter how happy they were with their original success of getting into the school, two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there, nor on their philosophy or physics, but on the competition, the workload, the hassles, stresses, complaints.

我作为哈佛的咨询师协助学生们在四年大学韶光进行心思咨询。在我的研讨和教育中,我发现,不管这些学生入学之前获得的成功让他们多么高兴。两周之后他们的注意力就不在作为一名哈佛学子的荣耀感了,也不在哲学或许物理学上面。他们的注意力会集在竞赛、作业、各种烦恼、压力和诉苦上面。

When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall, which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up -- I know some of you know this. When they'd visit, they'd look around, and say, "This dining hall looks like something out of Hogwart's." It does, because that was Hogwart's and that's Harvard. And when they see this, they say, "Why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard? What does a Harvard student possibly have to be unhappy about?"

当我榜首次开端作业的时分,我走进了重生食堂,我的来自德克萨斯州瓦克市的朋友在那里等我,我便是在瓦克市长大的。我知道你们或许有人听说过这个当地,他们来看望我,并在食堂里四处观赏。他们说这个重生食堂看起来有点像,电影哈利·波特里边霍格瓦茨魔法校园的食堂。确实那个食堂是挺像的,这边的是电影哈利·波特里边霍格瓦茨魔法校园的食堂,另一边是哈佛的食堂。当他们看到这些时,他们说,“肖恩,你为什么浪费时间在哈佛研讨高兴这个问题呢?说真的,哈佛大学的学生有什么感到不高兴的理由么?

Embedded within that question is the key to understanding the science of happiness. Because what that question assumes is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels, when in reality, if I know everything about your external world, I can only predict 10% of your long-term happiness. 90 percent of your long-term happiness is predicted not by the external world, but by the way your brain processes the world. And if we change it, if we change our formula for happiness and success, we can change the way that we can then affect reality. What we found is that only 25% of job successes are predicted by IQ, 75 percent of job successes are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.

这个问题恰恰包含了了解高兴这门科学的要害。因为这个问题假定,经过外部条件是能够猜测咱们的高兴程度的。但实际上,假如我了解你一切的外部条件,我只能猜测你长时间高兴程度的10%。剩余的90%都不是靠外部条件能够猜测的,而是取决于你的大脑怎样了解这个国际。假如咱们做一点改动,改动咱们关于高兴和成功的界说原则。咱们需求改动自己影响实际的办法,咱们发现只要25%的作业成功是由IQ决议的。其他75%是由你的活跃程度、人脉以及把压力视为应战而不是要挟的才能决议的。

I talked to a New England boarding school, probably the most prestigious one, and they said, "We already know that. So every year, instead of just teaching our students, we have a wellness week. And we're so excited. Monday night we have the world's leading expert will speak about adolescent depression. Tuesday night it's school violence and bullying. Wednesday night is eating disorders. Thursday night is illicit drug use. And Friday night we're trying to decide between risky sex or happiness." I said, "That's most people's Friday nights." Which I'm glad you liked, but they did not like that at all. Silence on the phone. And into the silence, I said, "I'd be happy to speak at your school, but that's not a wellness week, that's a sickness week. You've outlined all the negative things that can happen, but not talked about the positive."

我跟新英格兰一个寄宿校园谈起这个问题,这个校园应该是最闻名的寄宿校园。他们说,“咱们知道这个问题,所以每年,咱们不只教育,咱们还有一周健康课。这个作业让咱们都很振奋。周一晚上请国际闻名专家来讲青少年郁闷问题。周二晚上讲校园暴力和恃强欺弱问题。周三晚上是饮食紊乱问题。周四晚上是吸毒问题。周五晚上咱们正在评论风险的性行为与高兴之间的选择。我说,“大多数人周五晚都考虑这个”很高兴你们喜爱这个答复,可是他们如同一点都不喜爱。电话里一阵缄默沉静,为了打破缄默沉静,我说“我很乐意在贵校做讲演,可是你们也知道,这其实不是健康周,而是疾病周。你们列出了或许发作的消沉作业,却没有说到活跃的方面。

The absence of disease is not health. Here's how we get to health: We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success. In the last three years, I've traveled to 45 countries, working with schools and companies in the midst of an economic downturn. And I found that most companies and schools follow a formula for success, which is this: If I work harder, I'll be more successful. And if I'm more successful, then I'll be happier. That undergirds most of our parenting and managing styles, the way that we motivate our behavior.

没有疾病并不代表健康,咱们应该这样获得健康:咱们需求从头界说健康和成功的概念。曩昔的三年里,我到过45个国家,和那里的校园、公司协作。在这个经济危机时期,我发现大部分公司和校园有这样一个成功的原则,便是假如我更尽力,我就会更成功。假如我更成功,我就会更高兴。这契合咱们大多数爸爸妈妈的教育办法,以及公司的管理办法,也契合咱们行为鼓励的原则。

And the problem is it's scientifically broken and backwards for two reasons. Every time your brain has a success, you just changed the goalpost of what success looked like. You got good grades, now you have to get better grades, you got into a good school and after you get into a better one, you got a good job, now you have to get a better job, you hit your sales target, we're going to change it. And if happiness is on the opposite side of success, your brain never gets there. We've pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon, as a society. And that's because we think we have to be successful, then we'll be happier.

但问题是从科学视点说这个观念是不成立的,是落后的,有两点原因。榜首,每次你觉得成功的时分,你就会对成功从头进行界说。比方你获得了好成果,接下来你有必要获得更好的成果。你进了一所好校园,接下来你有必要进入更好的校园。你找到了一个好作业,下一步你得找到一个更好的作业。你达到了出售方针,下一步有必要拟定更多的出售方针。假如说高兴在成功的相不和,你永久不会得到高兴。咱们所做的是把成功举高到了 社会的认知层面以外,这是因为咱们觉得咱们有必要成功,这样才会高兴。

But our brains work in the opposite order. If you can raise somebody's level of positivity in the present, then their brain experiences what we now call a happiness advantage, which is your brain at positive performs significantly better than at negative, neutral or stressed. Your intelligence rises, your creativity rises, your energy levels rise. In fact, we've found that every single business outcome improves. Your brain at positive is 31% more productive than your brain at negative, neutral or stressed. You're 37% better at sales. Doctors are 19 percent faster, more accurate at coming up with the correct diagnosis when positive instead of negative, neutral or stressed.

但真实的问题是咱们的大脑却在相反的方向运转。假如你现在能够进步某个人的活跃心思程度,那么他的大脑就会阅历咱们称为高兴优势论的进程。这时你的大脑在活跃方面的体现显着优于它在消沉、中立或许懊丧方面的体现。你的智商进步、发明力进步、精力也进步了。实际上,咱们发现每件事的成果都改进了。处于活跃状况的大脑的生产力比处于消沉、中立或许懊丧状况下高31%。你的出售额能进步37%,医师得出正确确诊的速度和准确率也进步了19%。当他的大脑处于活跃状况而不是消沉、中立或懊丧状况下 这意味着咱们能够彻底改动这个原则。假如现在咱们能够找到一种使自己变得活跃的办法,那么大脑运转会更成功,咱们会作业得更尽力、更快速、更聪明。

Which means we can reverse the formula. If we can find a way of becoming positive in the present, then our brains work even more successfully as we're able to work harder, faster and more intelligently. We need to be able to reverse this formula so we can start to see what our brains are actually capable of. Because dopamine, which floods into your system when you're positive, has two functions. Not only does it make you happier, it turns on all of the learning centers in your brain allowing you to adapt to the world in a different way.

咱们需求改动这个原则,所以咱们现在就来看看大脑终究有多大才能。当你有活跃的心态时,多巴胺就会进入你的大脑体系。它有两个效果,多巴胺不只能够使你更高兴,一起还能够翻开大脑中一切的学习中心,让你以另一种办法来习惯这个国际。

We've found there are ways that you can train your brain to be able to become more positive. In just a two-minute span of time done for 21 days in a row, we can actually rewire your brain, allowing your brain to actually work more optimistically and more successfully. We've done these things in research now in every company that I've worked with, getting them to write down three new things that they're grateful for for 21 days in a row, three new things each day. And at the end of that, their brain starts to retain a pattern of scanning the world not for the negative, but for the positive first.

咱们发现你能够经过练习自己的大脑,来使自己愈加活跃。在一个接连21天进行的每次继续两分钟的试验里,咱们能够从头衔接你的大脑线路,使你的大脑能够变得更活跃、更成功。咱们现在正在做这些研讨。在我协作过的每一个公司,让他们写下三件他们要感谢的作业,接连21天,每天三件新的作业。这个试验完毕的时分,他们的大脑会构成一种形式,首先会以活跃的心态看待这个国际,而不是消沉的。

Journaling about one positive experience you've had over the past 24 hours allows your brain to relive it. Exercise teaches your brain that your behavior matters. We find that meditation allows your brain to get over the cultural ADHD that we've been creating by trying to do multiple tasks at once and allows our brains to focus on the task at hand. And finally, random acts of kindness are conscious acts of kindness. We get people, when they open up their inbox, to write one positive email praising or thanking somebody in their support network.

回顾曩昔24小时你阅历的一件活跃的作业,会让你的大脑从头阅历一遍那件作业。实践告知人们你的行为是很重要的。咱们发现冥想能够使你战胜文明多动症。这个多动症是因为咱们一起做不同的作业形成的。冥想能够让你的大脑会集精力在手头的一项作业中。最终,看似随机的善举其实是有意识的善举。当人们翻开收件箱时,咱们让他们写一封活跃的邮件,表彰或许感谢他们交际网中的某个人。

And by doing these activities and by training your brain just like we train our bodies, what we've found is we can reverse the formula for happiness and success, and in doing so, not only create ripples of positivity, but a real revolution.

经过这些行为,就像练习身体相同练习大脑。咱们发现咱们能够彻底改动高兴和成功的原则。经过这些作业,咱们不只能够发明出活跃的影响力,还能够发明一个真实的革新。

Thank you very much.

非常感谢。

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